Sunday, August 24, 2014

Ebola Virus - Know Your Basic's

Ebola Virus - Know Your Basic's 


I know that you have heard of the Ebola virus a million times already but I can’t help but give my two cent’s on the topic since I am an African and this affects us all. The scientific nerd in me wanted to come out and share more information with you guys because I'm sure you have received ton's of sms', instant messages and emails on the virus but there is not alot of scientific background on it. Below you will find more information on the Ebola virus, let us all keep safe and hopefully the virus will be eradicated soon. If I have missed any information or forgot to mention something, please leave a comment below or contact me.


Ebola is virus disease (formerly known as Ebola haemorrhagic fever) is a severe, often fatal illness, with a death rate of up to 90%. The illness affects humans and nonhuman primates (monkeys, gorillas, and chimpanzees).

Electron micrograph of an Ebola virus virion


Causes

EVD is caused by four of five viruses classified in the genus Ebolavirus, family Filoviridae, order Mononegavirales. The four disease-causing viruses are Bundibugyo virus (BDBV), Sudan virus (SUDV), Taï Forest virus (TAFV), and one called simply,Ebola virus (EBOV, formerly Zaire Ebola virus)). Ebola virus is the sole member of the Zaire ebolavirus species, and the most dangerous of the known Ebola disease causing viruses, as well as being responsible for the largest number of outbreaks.[15]The fifth virus, Reston virus (RESTV), is not thought to be disease-causing in humans. The five Ebola viruses are closely related to the Marburg viruses.

Risk of Exposure

Ebola viruses are found in several African countries. The first Ebola virus was discovered in 1976 near the Ebola River in what is now the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Since then, outbreaks of Ebola among humans have appeared sporadically in Africa.

Signs and Symptoms





Symptoms of Ebola  typically include

  • Fever (greater than 38.6°C or 101.5°F)
  • Severe headache
  • Muscle pain
  • Weakness
  • Diarrhea
  • Vomiting
  • Abdominal (stomach) pain
  • Lack of appetite

Some patients may experience

  • Rash
  • Red eyes
  • Hiccups
  • Cough
  • Sore throat
  • Chest pain
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Difficulty swallowing
  • Unexplained bleeding inside and outside of the body
Symptoms may appear anywhere from 2 to 21 days after exposure to ebolavirus, although 8-10 days is most common.

Transmission

Because the natural reservoir of ebolaviruses has not yet been proven, the manner in which the virus first appears in a human at the start of an outbreak is unknown. However, researchers have hypothesized that the first patient becomes infected through contact with an infected animal.
When an infection does occur in humans, the virus can be spread in several ways to others. The virus is spread through direct contact (through broken skin or mucous membranes) with
  • a sick person's blood or body fluids (urine, saliva, feces, vomit, and semen)
  • objects (such as needles) that have been contaminated with infected body fluids
  • infected animals
Healthcare workers and the family and friends in close contact with Ebola patients are at the highest risk of getting sick because they may come in contact with infected blood or body fluids.
During outbreaks of Ebola HF, the disease can spread quickly within healthcare settings (such as a clinic or hospital). Exposure to ebolaviruses can occur in healthcare settings where hospital staff are not wearing appropriate protective equipment, such as masks, gowns, and gloves.
Proper cleaning and disposal of instruments, such as needles and syringes, is also important. If instruments are not disposable, they must be sterilized before being used again. Without adequate sterilization of the instruments, virus transmission can continue and amplify an outbreak.

Past Ebola Outbreaks

Past Ebola outbreaks have occurred in the following countries:
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC)
  • Gabon
  • South Sudan
  • Ivory Coast
  • Uganda
  • Republic of the Congo (ROC)
  • South Africa (imported)

Current Ebola Outbreak in West Africa

The current (2014) Ebola outbreak is occurring in the following West African countries:
  • Guinea
  • Liberia
  • Sierra Leone
  • Nigeria

Prevention


Because we still do not know exactly how people are infected with Ebola, few primary prevention measures have been established and no vaccine exists.

If you must travel to an area with known Ebola cases, make sure to do the following:
  • Practice careful hygiene. Avoid contact with blood and body fluids.
  • Do not handle items that may have come in contact with an infected person’s blood or body fluids.
  • Avoid funeral or burial rituals that require handling the body of someone who has died from Ebola.
  • Avoid contact with animals and raw meat.
  • Avoid hospitals where Ebola patients are being treated. The U.S. embassy or consulate is often able to provide advice on facilities.
  • After you return, monitor your health for 21 days and seek medical care immediately if you develop symptoms of Ebola.

Treatment


Ebola does not have a known, proven treatment. Standard treatment for Ebola HF is still limited to treating the symptoms as they appear and supportive care. This consists of
  • balancing the patient’s fluids and electrolytes
  • maintaining their oxygen status and blood pressure
  • treating them for any complicating infections
Timely treatment of Ebola HF is important but challenging because the disease is difficult to diagnose clinically in the early stages of infection. Because early symptoms, such as headache and fever, are nonspecific to ebolaviruses, cases of Ebola HF may be initially misdiagnosed.
However, if a person has the early symptoms of Ebola HF and there is reason to believe that Ebola HF should be considered, the patient should be isolated and public health professionals notified. Supportive therapy can continue with proper protective clothing until samples from the patient are tested to confirm infection.
Experimental treatments have been tested and proven effective in animal models but have not yet been used in humans.

Key facts

  • Ebola first appeared in 1976 in two simultaneous outbreaks, one in a village near the Ebola River in the Democratic Republic of Congo, and the other in a remote area of Sudan.
  • The origin of the virus is unknown but fruit bats (Pteropodidae) are considered the likely host of the Ebola virus, based on available evidence.
  • Ebola virus disease (EVD), formerly known as Ebola haemorrhagic fever, is a severe, often fatal illness in humans.
  • EVD outbreaks have a case fatality rate of up to 90%.
  • EVD outbreaks occur primarily in remote villages in Central and West Africa, near tropical rainforests.
  • The virus is transmitted to people from wild animals and spreads in the human population through human-to-human transmission.
  • Fruit bats of the Pteropodidae family are considered to be the natural host of the Ebola virus.
  • Severely ill patients require intensive supportive care. No licensed specific treatment or vaccine is available for use in people or animals.


Ebola first appeared in 1976 in 2 simultaneous outbreaks, in Nzara, Sudan, and in Yambuku, Democratic Republic of Congo. The latter was in a village situated near the Ebola River, from which the disease takes its name.
Genus Ebolavirus is 1 of 3 members of the Filoviridae family (filovirus), along with genus Marburgvirus and genus Cuevavirus. Genus Ebolavirus comprises 5 distinct species:
  • Bundibugyo ebolavirus (BDBV)
  • Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV)
  • Reston ebolavirus (RESTV)
  • Sudan ebolavirus (SUDV)
  • Taï Forest ebolavirus (TAFV).
BDBV, EBOV, and SUDV have been associated with large EVD outbreaks in Africa, whereas RESTV and TAFV have not. The RESTV species, found in Philippines and the People’s Republic of China, can infect humans, but no illness or death in humans from this species has been reported to date.

CDCWikiWHO

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Now you know. Till next time.

Your girl Zanele Mondi signing In, out and around Soweto.
 
Instagram: zanelemondi

Thursday, August 7, 2014

National Women’s Day - My Top 5 Best Quotes

National Women’s Day



Its women’s on the 9th of August 2014 which will be on a Saturday this year (such a bummer because it won’t create a long weekend that like we are used to hahaha). Hopefully we all know how the public holiday came about, if not I will be questioning your identity if you are a South African, for my International followers please follow this link to learn more about this day - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Women's_Day.


Since I am a woman who is young free and liberated, I will be sharing my favourite quotes with you guys. Please re-share re-blog and re-tweet. I also hope that these quotes make you think and please feel free to leave a comment down. 


My Top 5 Best Quotes


 “Give a girl an education and introduce her properly into the world, and ten to one but she has the means of settling well, without further expense to anybody. ” 
― Coco Chanel


“It’s probably not just by chance that I’m alone. It would be very hard for a man to live with me, unless he’s terribly strong. And if he’s stronger than I, I’m the one who can’t live with him. … I’m neither smart nor stupid, but I don’t think I’m a run-of-the-mill person. I’ve been in business without being a businesswoman, I’ve loved without being a woman made only for love. The two men I’ve loved, I think, will remember me, on earth or in heaven, because men always remember a woman who caused them concern and uneasiness. I’ve done my best, in regard to people and to life, without precepts, but with a taste for justice.” ― Jane Austen

“Yes, we praise women over 40 for a multitude of reasons. Unfortunately, it's not reciprocal. For every stunning, smart, well-coiffed, hot woman over 40, there is a bald, paunchy relic in yellow pants making a fool of himself with some 22-year old waitress. Ladies, I apologize. For all those men who say, "Why buy the cow when you can get the milk for free?", here's an update for you. Nowadays 80% of women are against marriage. Why? Because women realize it's not worth buying an entire pig just to get a little sausage!” ―  Katharine Hepburn


“No woman wants to be in submission to a man who isn't in submission to God!” ― T.D. Jakes

“A woman knows very well that, though a wit sends her his poems, praises her judgment, solicits her criticism, and drinks her tea, this by no means signifies that he respects her opinions, admires her understanding, or will refuse, though the rapier is denied him, to run through the body with his pen.” 



Happy Women’s to all my fellow ladies and gentlemen.Till next time . 

Your girl Zanele Mondi signing In, out and around Soweto.

Instagram Twitter
Facebook


Sources:  PictureQuotes from,


In Out & Around Soweto Blog © . Design by FCD.